By S. Rakoff-Nahoum, R. Medzhitov (auth.), Tasuku Honjo MD, Ph.D., Fritz Melchers (eds.)

The gut is colonized by way of a magnificent group of commensals, that has profound results at the immune funtions. the connection among intestine microbiota and the immune process is one among reciprocity: commensals have vital contribution in nutrient processing and schooling of the immune procedure and conversely, the immune process, really gut-associated lymphoid tissues performs a key position in shaping the repertoire of intestine microbiota.

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Obviously, fusion protein-treatment is less efficient than gene silencing and hence, other ligands triggering TNFRI such as TNFα or LTα3 may surpass fusion protein-mediated inhibition of LTβR-signaling during mesenteric LN development. Evidence for functional synergism of TNFRI and LTβR ligands is further given by crossing LTβ−/− mice onto the TNFRI-deficient background, resulting in loss of mesenteric LNs, in addition to the loss of PPs and peripheral LNs (Koni and Flavell 1998) (Table 2). The consequence of inhibiting either the LTβR or the TNFRI signaling pathway on the organization of the GALT was studied in adult mice (Yamamoto et al.

1998; Cao et al. 1995; Park et al. 1995). These data indicate that the IL-7R-signaling pathway is mandatory for PP and some LN organogenesis as well as GC formation (see also Sect. 2). Importantly, NALT development occurs independently of IL-7R, LTβR, and NIK signaling, providing evidence for a differential regulation of mucosal lymphoid tissue formation (Fukuyama et al. 2002). 2 Genes Regulating the Development of Lymphoid Tissue Inducers Little is known about the origin and the developmental regulation of CD45+ CD4+ CD3− lymphoid tissue inducer cells.

In humans, PPs occur more frequently in the ileum than in the jejunum (Makala et al. 2002). The number and size of PPs increase from birth to adolescence, reach a maximum at puberty, persist at particular places of the small intestine, and decrease in size on further aging (Cornes 1965). Although microbial content of the gut may influence the size of PPs, their numbers and positions remain constant. The molecular mechanism of PP formation during ontogeny is discussed in Sect. 3. Like other secondary lymphoid organs, the PP microarchitecture is organized in B cell follicles and interfollicular T cell zones (Fig.

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