By Xiangwu Zhang
"This quantity offers the fundamental chemical and mathematical idea had to comprehend and adjust the connections one of the constitution, formation and houses of many differing types of artifical and common fibers."--Publishers website
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Additional info for Fundamentals of fiber science
2 Folded-Chain Model and Switchboard Model One important feature of the fringed micelle model is that all the polymer chains run continuously between the crystalline and amorphous phases without folding back. This view changed when single crystals of polyethylene were prepared by Keller in 1957. These single crystals were made by precipitation from dilute solutions of hot xylene, and they typically have diamond shape, with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 20 nm. 11). The folded-chain model explains the chain-folding phenomenon, which is not captured in the fringed micelle model.
The overall properties of a crystallite structure also can be calculated, at least theoretically, by considering an individual unit cell. There are totally 14 different types of unit cells, which meet the following criteria: • • • The unit cell is the simplest repeating unit in the crystal. Opposite faces of a unit cell are parallel. The edge of the unit cell connects equivalent points. These fourteen unit cells belong to seven categories, which differ in the three edge lengths (a, b, and c) and three internal angles (a, β, and γ).
11. (A) Eclipsed and staggered conformations, (B) trans and gauche conformations, and (C) potential energy of n-butane molecule. drawing of a synthetic fiber can change some single bonds from gauche to trans conformation, leading to a better aligned structure. 12) Bonding 25 where ∆E is the energy difference between the two conformations, k the Boltzmann constant, and T the absolute temperature. It is seen that with increase in temperature, the Ngauche/Ntrans ratio increases. The result is the polymer chains tend to contract in size at elevated temperatures and change to a less ordered structure.