By Hari Singh Nalwa

This paintings covers the chemistry and physics of polymeric fabrics and their makes use of within the fields of electronics, photonics, and biomedical engineering. It discusses the connection among polymeric supermolecular buildings and ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric homes

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Extra resources for Ferroelectric polymers : chemistry, physics, and applications

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Recently, the laser intensity modulation method the pressure propagation method (Pm)of measuring the polarization distributions in piezoelectricmaterials have been compared and critically analyzed by Alquie et al. [502], who concluded that these methods are complementary in many respects and the use of both methods on the same samples can yield additional information. &I") MI. EXPERIMENTALMETHODS TO INVESTIGATE POLARIZATION IN ELECTRETS Of the various types of electrets, thermoelectrets are most important from the scientific and application points of view.

Mutual repulsion between individual charges limits the total charge injected into thesample, and the resulting current is said to be space charge-limited current (SCLC). A complete mathematical analysis of the timedependent space charge current is so complex that satisfactory explanation has not yet been obtained. Mott and Gurney were the first to emphasize the importance of an injecting contact between the metal and the insulator [156]. They provided an expression relating the current density J and applied voltage V, for a trap-free insulator, as follows: 9 V' J=-%E~-8 d3 where E,, is the permittivity of free space, E is the dielectric constant of the sample, p is the dipole moment, d is the thickness of the sample, and V is the applied voltage.

However,this method shows some of the drawbacks have been improvement over the ordinary induction method. Most largely eliminated through modem electret research. Wkeman and Feaster [339] considered the electret-electrode combination as a three-layer capacitor as shown in Figure19. The gaps dl and d3 can usually be made negligibly small by molding the dielectric to the lower electrode or carefully machining the surfaces. e. Continuous Measurement of Surface Charge. Freedman and Rosenthal[341] developedamethodthat is capable of continuouslymeasuringandrecording electret strength.

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