By Scott Freeman

By providing evolutionary biology as an ongoing learn attempt, this best-seller goals to aid readers imagine like scientists. The authors express the buzz and common sense of evolutionary technology by way of introducing ideas via fresh and classical stories, and through emphasizing real-world functions. Features a brand new bankruptcy on Phylogenomics and the Molecular foundation of model (Ch. 15). bargains an previous presentation of Reconstructing Evolutionary timber, reflecting the turning out to be significance of this subject within the box. comprises the most recent learn and examples, giving scholars entry to the most up-tp-date advancements within the box. contains full-color photos, diagrams and data-graphics all through, built by means of the writer. Undergraduate classes in evolution









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2008). 26 Dating the common ancestor of HIV-1 strains in group M (a) An unrooted evolutionary tree for 159 group M HIVs. The tip of each twig represents a virion; the distance traveled from one tip to another represents the genetic difference between the two virions. The orange dot marks the common ancestor of all group M strains. (b) This scatterplot shows the genetic difference between each HIV 1990 1995 2000 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Year sample was collected © 2000 AAAS sample in (a) versus the common ancestor as a function of the date the sample was collected.

25b, estimated by Jean-Christophe Plantier and colleagues (2009) gives more details on the history of HIV-1. Note that strains of HIV-1 appear on distinct branches arising from within the chimp SIVs. This is evidence that SIV has jumped from great apes to humans at least three times. HIV-1 Group M, in orange, is responsible for 95% of HIV infections (Sharp and Hahn 2008). The two main types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, were transmitted to humans from different sources. HIV-2 originated in sooty mangabeys, and HIV-1 was transmitted to humans from chimpanzees.

Samson also found that individuals carrying one or two copies of the Δ32 allele were substantially less common among Europeans infected with HIV than among the European population at large. Together these results indicated that the Δ32 allele confers strong (though not perfect) protection against HIV, a conclusion later confirmed by research that followed initially uninfected high-risk subjects over time (Marmor et al. 2001). To find out how common the Δ32 allele is in various human populations, Samson and colleagues took DNA samples from a large number of individuals of northern European, Japanese, and African heritage, examined the gene for CCR5 in each individual, and calculated the frequency of the normal and Δ32 alleles in each population.

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