By Martin Carr, Sandra L. Baldauf (auth.), Stefanie Pöggeler, Johannes Wöstemeyer (eds.)

Based on series analyses of many various genes, the previous decade has supplied us with a profound wisdom of fungal systematics and phylogeny. furthermore, a few sequences of whole fungal genomes were pointed out and several other others will quickly stick to. during this quantity, top specialists tackle questions in regards to the starting place of the fungal country and fungal evolution at a degree of analytical refinement that hasn't ever been attainable ahead of. the subsequent significant elements are highlighted: evolutionary roots of fungi; evolution of signaling in fungi and fungal-like organisms; evolution of mutualistic structures and metabolism in fungi; and evolutionary mechanisms and trends.

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C. limacisporum is a saprotroph and has not been found associated with any host organism (Mendoza et al. 2002). This nutritional mode allows it to be cultured axenically, which is useful for studying the organism in the laboratory, (Sumathi et al. 2006). Phylogenetic analyses robustly place C. limacisporum within Holozoa, but its exact placement has yet to be confirmed. Small-subunit RNA sequences weakly place C. limacisporum as a sister-group to the choanoflagellates (Cavalier-Smith and Chao 2003; Hertel et al.

2007; Mallatt et al. 2004). Ecdysozoa comprises organisms that undergo ecdysis (the moulting of cuticle: panarthropods, nematodes, nematomorphs, kinorhynchs, loriciferans, priapulids; see Halanych 2004; Philippe and Telford 2006). Lophotrochozoa has no single unifying morphological characteristic, but was proposed by Halanych et al. (1995) on the basis of molecular phylogenetics. Lophotrochozoans (platyhelminthes, phoronids, sipunculids, nemerteans, gastrotrichs, cycliophorans, entoprocts, gnathostomulids, rotifers, acanthocephalans, molluscs, annelids, nemertines, brachiopods, dicyemids, myzostomids) possess either a lophophore (a structure of ciliated tentacles around the mouth) or trochophore larvae (planktonic larvae with a distinctive band of cilia).

However they have also been considered to be algae (Bourrelly 1968; Chadefaud 1960), highly reduced members of Metazoa (Maldonado 2004) and even a paraphyletic assemblage ancestral to both Fungi and Metazoa (Cavalier-Smith 1987). Molecular phylogenetics has slowly answered this question by first placing choanoflagellates firmly within Opisthokonta (Wainright et al. 1993) and then allied with both Metazoa and Ichthyosporea (Amaral-Zettler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 1999; Cavalier-Smith and Chao 2003; King and Carroll 2001; Lang et al.

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