By D. Sebayang, et. al.

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It was concluded that this is the optimal plating time for obtaining the smallest particle catalysts. 40 Electroplating (a) (b) Fig. 9. 5 sec step intervals. The particle sizes and morphologies of the CNTs-supported Pt-Ru catalysts were investigated by TEM. 50 sec interval times, which showed the smallest and the largest particle size, respectively. 06 sec interval, the image shows well-dispersed 3-6 nm nanoparticles on the surface of the CNTs. 50 sec interval, the image shows rather aggregated catalyst particles of 5 – 8 nm size.

The EDX line analysis shows that nickel layer disappeared and fully converted to nickel oxide. Until the end of the oxidation exposure, the nickel oxide still existed. (a) (b) Fig. 17. b), then combined with nickel electroplating, and oxidation process at 1000 oC. According to the EDX line analysis, it is clear that both types of the FeCrAl whether treated by ultrasonic with SiC or Al2O3 then electroplated with nickel showed the phase change of nickel to nickel oxide and existing of nickel oxide during oxidation exposure for 100 hours.

21. Cyclic voltammograms of (a) CBs and (b) polyaniline supports in 1 M methanol solution (scan rate: 20mV/s). Fig. 22. Cyclic voltammograms of (a) Pt-Ru/CBs and (b) Pt-Ru/polyaniline prepared by 24 min plating in 1 M sulfuric acid solution (scan rate: 20mV/s). Beside, chronoamperometry could be used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient of ions in electrochemical reactions. The current responses with time were shown in Figure 23. 6V, the current response was recorded. Using a following equation, the apparent diffusion coefficient had been calculated (Antoline & Cardellini, 2001; Bard & Faulkner, 1980).

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