By M. H. Loretto (auth.)

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**Example text**

Calculations and measurements have shown that Z dependence of IJx can be represented satisfactorily on families of curves of the type shown in Fig. 2. 7 where u ~ 1 = Eel E 0 and IJx is plotted as a fraction of IJ. The factor by which backscattering reduces the X-ray intensity is commonly expressed as R = (1 - IJx). It should be noted that for non-normal incidence IJ increases. g. [5] ). The change in Q as electrons penetrate a sample is best discussed in terms of the stopping power S of the sample, where S is defined as the rate of change of electron energy with distance traversed through the sample.

G. [ 4] ). 6) where u 2 is the mean square of the displacement perpendicular to the Bragg planes. 3. Thus, for the present purposes the division between low angle and high angle elastic scattering is made so that electrons which are likely to be Bragg diffracted are discussed separately from those which are scattered through too large an angle to be Bragg diffracted. 2) ). (b) High angle scattering As pointed out above the term high angle scattering is taken to mean scattering which, in the ideal case, is not influenced by the periodic nature 23 24 ELECTRON BEAM ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS of the sample.

23, 235. 23. C. (1974) Analytical Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Plenum, New York, p. 509. 1 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY As its name implies the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to obtain information from samples which are thin enough to transmit electrons. The transmitted electrons are generally used to form either an image or a diffraction pattern of the specimen and schematic ray diagrams for these two modes of operation are shown in Fig. l(a) and (b). The transmitted electrons can also be used for microanalysis since the characteristic energy loss suffered by electrons (see Chapters 2 and 6) can be used to identify the elements present.