By G. Rey, et. al.

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Usually, all the generation units of a smart grid are coordinated to provide the same grid service, as their single active or reactive contribution would not be perceived by the grid, given the small size of the diffused generation units among the grid inertia. It can be considered that all the hybrid generation units connected to a smart grid, and referring to a single external controller, will be operating in valley filling mode at the same time, thus all the storage systems will be in charging operation at the same time and they will not exchange power.

The hybrid power plants analyzed in this chapter can contribute to the improvement of voltage profiles on the LV and MV networks and can be actively involved in the grid voltage regulation only if they are able to regulate their reactive power injection in the grid. Integration of Hybrid Distributed Generation Units in Power Grid 21 Looking at the voltage regulation operated nowadays on the big power plants connected to the HV network, one can imagine that the voltage regulation on the MV and LV diffused generators could be organized in, at least, two steps: primary voltage regulation and secondary voltage regulation.

What explained about the frequency regulation concerns the hybrid generation units with a DC bus configuration. When this generation units are connected in parallel to the grid, they have only one interface point (interface converter) and they can maintain the same internal power management algorithm used for the islanded operation. So, the interface converter follows the active power set points coming from the frequency regulation and the generation converters extract the maximum power available from the renewable sources (or limit this power to a set point value) and the battery converter maintains the energy balance on the DC.

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