By K. Warner Schaie PhD, Howard Leventhal PhD, Sherry Willis PhD

Pennsylvania kingdom Univ., collage Park. textual content examines the wellbeing and fitness behaviors of older adults and the ways that those behaviors are tormented by societal tendencies. themes contain psychosocial components in prevention of heart problems, function of workout, persistent affliction, societal constructions, and compensation styles.

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Extra info for Effective Health Behavior in Older Adults (Springer Series on the Societal Impact on Aging)

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Several lines of research indicate that cynicism and antagonistic behaviors in adolescents are associated with early family experiences involving negative parental expectations, coercion, and family conflict (Matthews, Woodall, Kenyon, & Jacob, 1996). Consistent with an interactional stress moderation model, hostile individuals experience more conflicts and stressors and have fewer sources of social support (Smith & Frohm, 1985; Smith, Pope, Sanders, Allred, & O'Keefe, 1988). This seems to be the result of their negative expectations and disagreeable interpersonal style.

This is the case for traffic accidents, dental problems, AIDS, lung cancer, alcoholism, and heart disease. This pattern persists in all age groups and even if a sample is at high risk (Van der Velde, Van der Pligt, & Hooykaas, 1994). " On a logical basis, the majority of people cannot be at lower risk (except when the distribution is positively skewed) (Krueger, 1998). , eating less red meat) or even invent new behaviors of questionable relevance (Klein & Weinstein, 1997). The consequence of unrealistic optimism is that people may minimize their perceptions of heart disease risk and be less motivated to engage in healthy practices such as exercising and maintaining a low-fat diet.

Self-report questionnaires, such as the Jenkins Activity Survey and the Framingham Type A Scale, also were used in some large-sample epidemiological studies. In 1981, an expert panel (Cooper, Detre, & Weiss, 1981) convened by the American Heart Association concluded that Type A was a robust risk factor, but soon after several failures to find a relationship were reported. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) project, which assessed Type A behavior with the SI, failed to find any associations with increased CAD risk (Shekelle, Gale, & Norusis, 1985).

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