By Duncan Q.M. Craig

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I*. While this is not standard mathematical notation, this format is often used in the dielectric literature and hence will be used here. 1 Conductors, semiconductors, insulators and dielectrics It is necessary to consider what is meant by the terms conductor, semiconductor and insulator, as the expressions are often used loosely in the literature and can thus lead to confusion. The term conductor applies to materials which have a high value of conductivity, the most important example being metals.

This then means that apparently diverse responses of, for example, molten liquids and their respective solids may now be usefully compared and insights gained into the changes that occur structurally on solidification. c. c. conductivity. c. field, the presence of a capacitance will in itself result in a finite conductivity. c. conductivity, as it signifies the Principles of dielectric spectroscopy 33 movement of fixed charges between specific sites. c. conductivity, however, involves the movement of free charges at a steady velocity.

1978). In terms of measuring techniques, coaxial lines are used up to the low gigahertz (GHz) region, while waveguides which are used at higher frequencies. , 1978). The coaxial line cell consists of a hollow metal cylinder containing a concentric inner conductor. 5. An electromagnetic wave passes through the liquid sample in the line and is reflected by the short circuit. This reflected wave will interfere with the transmitted wave, resulting in a standing wave being set up in the liquid. This phenomenon arises due to transmitted wave being combined with its reflection.

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