By J. Faundez

This publication strains the evolution of Chilean political and criminal associations by way of the method of democratization. in addition to explaining the strengths and weaknesses of the political regime, Faundez indicates the impression of criminal associations and felony ideology at the country's political improvement.

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Extra resources for Democratization, Development, and Legality: Chile, 1831–1973

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This process made possible the institutionalization of the office of the president, thus preventing the emergence of a caudillo tradition, so prevalent in other countries of the region at the time (Collier and Sater 1996:53). The bicameral congress, though largely under the influence of the president, had jurisdiction in three key areas of policy. It had the power to approve the annual budget, to set land taxes, and to fix 20 DEMOCRATIZATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND LEGALITY the size of, and expenditures for, the armed forces (Heise 1960:41).

Indeed, in 1837 he issued a decree requiring judges to give reasons for their decisions and to identify specifically the laws on which they based their decisions (Hanisch 1982:143). Portales’s main concern was with public order, in particular, with what he regarded as the unacceptable leniency and inconsistency of judges in criminal cases (Guzmán 1988:43). Legal Codification Given the government’s concern for order and stability, it is not surprising that Portales and his successors should have enthusiastically embraced the enterprise of legal codification.

The suffrage was restricted to males over 25 years of age, who were literate and owned property. Only a tiny group met this requirement. 2 percent of the population (Valenzuela 1985:150). The president had sweeping administrative and legislative powers, including a broad legislative veto. He also had direct control over the judiciary, whose members were appointed by the Council of State, an advisory body established by the constitution and made up of members appointed by the president. Provincial government was entrusted to intendants, who, as personal representatives of the president, were accountable to him alone.

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