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This is the ideal, indeed spiritual patria which is the ultimate goal and good for all men after death. In fact it is patterned after the most holy city at its most peaceful moment: "quella Roma onde Cristo e romano" (Purgatorio XXXII, 102). " By these words used to describe eternal citizenship in Paradise, we are reminded of course of St. Augustine's description of the heavenly City: "Deus unus et verus nee metas rerum nee tempora ponit. Imperium sine fine dabit" (De Civitate Dei I, 2C, 29).

What is more, the Empire has the responsibility of defending the Church. After all, the Empire under Augustus provided the atmosphere of peace for Christ's birth. While the Church should never be entrusted with the responsibility of regulating men's public lives, it was endowed with that of guaranteeing man's ultimate happiness. Just as the Pope and Emperor, then, complement one another, so philosophy is a necessary complement to revelation. The Paradiso is Dante's answer to the insufferable questions about God's vengeance and rewards, and it transcends his faith in the political solution of the here and now.

The acquisition of human justice or the achievement of man's temporal goal, then, enjoys the sanction of grace. In the Monarchia, after all, the Emperor's authority is given him directly by God. And in the Commedia, Virgil's direction is illuminated by God's grace. The higher goal of eternal happiness is transhuman justice and it is achieved through the guidance of St. Bernard in the poem and through revealed religion and the Church in this life. Transhuman justice is the acquisition of the theological and infused virtues and is not touched upon in the Monarchia.

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