By Professor Dr. Georgios Contopoulos, Professor Dr. Dimitrios Kotsakis (auth.)

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"It survives the pitfalls of this fashion-conscious period by way of pursuing a conscientiously independent-minded angle to modern principles. the extent is introductory undergraduate, with particularly little arithmetic yet a robust actual basis.
...The moment half, on normal relativity and cosmology, offers an exceptional account of recent theoretical rules, from rotating black holes to Grand Unified Theories and inflation. The 3rd half is a wonderful and profound dialogue of the elemental difficulties of cosmology. For someone with a philosophical flip of brain this part by myself makes the booklet crucial reading." Nature

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Although the spiral arms are not material arms but density waves, they are remarkably stable. They rotate slowly in comparison with the particles which make them up. The sense of rotation is such that the spiral arms go round the centre leaving behind their loose ends. For this reason they are called trailing. The density wave theory explains a paradox that has often been discussed in recent years: how spiral arms can persist in galaxies with differential rotation. As explained in Sect. 3 stars closer to the centre of the galaxy rotate faster than those further out.

More details about this subject are given in Sects. 5. 54 2. 11 Masses of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies The masses of galaxies may be estimated by various methods. For nearby galaxies a reliable method is based on the rotation velocity of the galaxy. 7) As r tends to the limiting radius of the galaxy, M(r) tends to its total mass. The rotational velocity v (r) of a galaxy can be calculated from the redshift of the 21 cm-line of neutral hydrogen (Fig. 14). By this method it has been found that the masses of spiral galaxies are of the order of 109 -10 12 M 0 · Another way of estimating the mass of a galaxy is from the distribution of the velocities of the stars inside the galaxy, by using the Virial theorem (Sect.

The construction of really large radio telescopes started after the Second World War, in Britain, Netherlands, Australia and later the USA, Germany and the USSR. Thus radioastronomy was born. The Earth's atmosphere, including the clouds, is transparent at wavelengths greater than 1 cm and less than 30 m. This range of wavelengths is known as the radio window, as opposed to the optical window which contains the range of wavelengths to which the human eye is sensitive. Radio telescopes can observe from 1 mm to about 100 m.

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