By Roger Th.A.J. Leenders, Shaul M. Gabbay

In reports of inter-organizational family members (lOR's), there's a tendency to examine dyads of flrms, and to think about networks as aggregates of such dyads. yet there are a number of roles for a 3rd social gathering; a go-between. This bankruptcy seems to be at a go-between no longer within the experience of a intermediary who intermediates in present creation or exchange, akin to an agent, wholesaler, keep, and never within the feel of an entrepreneur who intermediates within the recognition of latest strength in connecting provide and insist. It seems to be at a cross­ among within the feel of a dating counsellor for the advance and upkeep of social capital; supplying aid in developing, adapting and finishing cooperative family among others. Or, in but diverse phrases: to aid within the embedding of relati­ ons, in Granovetter's (1985) feel (Uzzi 1997a). Such roles might be played through middlemen or marketers, but additionally via really expert brokers who don't playa direct function in linking levels in a series of creation and distribution, as middlemen and marketers usually do. certainly, a number of the roles require an independence that's served by way of now not having an immediate stake within the relatives that have to be built. I suggest that the research yields a point of view for the jobs of exchange and institutions in ecu company platforms, and of banks and buying and selling homes in eastern firm teams (Kigyo Shudan).

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As with human capital, we need to dwell on the tension between individual and organizational levels of analysis.

And Stuart in this volume). Complementary resource needs drove strategic alliances, primarily involving exchanges of financial support for technical expertise. The small, innovative R&D laboratories typically lacked funds, public legitimacy, and in-house capability to market their products and maneuver through the regulatory maze. Hence they allied with diversified, resource-rich pharmaceutical, chemical, and agricultural companies able to provide sustaining resources. In turn, these established firms welcomed collaborative agreements as means to acquire tacit knowledge and to learn new technological skills from their NBF partners (social capital).

They are endowed with various kinds of assets on which they make ownership claims, and which are protected with isolating mechanisms such as patents and contracts. They are liable for their products and services. Also, they have members whose inclusion in the organization is usually beyond dispute. In fact, the firm as a collection of individuals is often 44 - Corporate Social Capital and Liability bracketed when considering the competitive game it is playing with other firms. Yet, organizational boundaries are precarious and permeable.

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