By Gabor Klaniczay, Eva Pocs

This is often the 1st quantity of a sequence of 3, containing eleven essays of altogether forty three articles in accordance with the themes of the interdisciplinary convention hung on this subject in Budapest in 1999. The authors - well-known historians, ethnologists, folklorists coming from four continents - current the newest study findings of a huge region of common human psychological studies and methods and simple religious-ethnological strategies. the current quantity specializes in the matter of communique with the opposite international: the phenomenon of spirit ownership and its altering old interpretations, the imaginary schemes elaborated for giving debts of the trips to the opposite global, for speaking with the useless, and eventually the old archetypes of this kind of spiritual manifestation - trance prophecy, divination, and shamanism.

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We saw his handling of the popular beliefs in demons and the official Church de- 50 NON SUNT NISI PHANTASIAE ET IMAGINATIONES monology. He rejected the former on rational, scientific ground but was forced to accept the latter on the authority of Christian faith. Both, however, played an important role in his investigations. It would be interesting to reverse the question and see how much (if at all) did the “naturalistic,” scientific explanation influence the popular perception of demons and the learned opinion of the theological authorities.

The color of blood and cholera makes the images appear red; hence patients believe that they see burning figures or red demons. In cases of mania and melancholy the mechanism is roughly the same. The illness originates either directly in the brain or in the stomach or spleen. The ill humor is identified with the black bile and therefore the visions are said to be endowed with black color. ” Hence, patients experience visions coming from inside, from the repository of their fantasy. In apoplexy, however, the posterior part of the brain, containing memory, is hurt, too.

Jones. : Loeb Classical Library. Lawn, Brian (1963). The Salernitan Questions. An Introduction to the History of Medieval and Renaissance Problem Literature. Oxford. Witelo (1979). , List Witelona do Ludwika we Lwówku Slaskim. Studia Copernicana 19. Wrocław: Ossolineum. DISCERNING SPIRITS IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE MOSHE SLUHOVSKY Its religious essence notwithstanding, the discernment of spirits has never been merely a theological issue. Rather, it has always been a social practice, characterized by interwoven processes of examinations and self-examination, negotiations and ambiguity, chaos and incoherence.

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