By Michael Angold

During this significant research the subject matter of "church and society" offers a way of studying the of the Byzantine Empire at a big interval of its background, as much as and way past the autumn of Constantinople in 1204.

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Extra resources for Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261

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It seemed that the emperor was willing to sacrifice orthodoxy and the interests of the orthodox church; and for what? Political advantages in southern Italy that an alliance with Rome might or might not bring! Forbearance was no longer possible once Cardinal Humbert stormed into the church of St Sophia and laid a bull of excommunication on the altar of the cathedral. Cerularius had the perpetrators anathematised and forced the emperor to abandon his support for the papal delegation. He was able to use the Constantinopolitan mob in order to bring pressure to bear on the emperor.

Psellus (ed. 3-14. •' Sathas, MB, v, 444. *> Ibid, iv, 447-8. 36 The eleventh century oath to his consort, Eudocia Makremvolitissa. She bound herself not to marry again and to support the Doukas succession. The patriarch undertook to anathematise her should she break this oath. In the event, he would release her from this oath on the grounds that it was in the public interest which took precedence over any private agreements. Gossip had it that the patriarch had been tempted by the empress's apparent interest in a marriage with either his brother or his nephew.

This the patriarch interpreted as interference in the affairs of the church. There may have been more to it than this. The emperor acted decisively. He had Cerularius bundled out of Constantinople and arraigned on a series of charges ranging from treason to heresy. The case never came to court because Cerularius died on 21 January 1059. Cerularius was accused among other things of usurping some of the symbols of imperial authority. He seems to have taken to wearing red sandals. On the basis of such accusations it has been usual for historians to present Cerularius as the Byzantine Hildebrand, not merely concerned to claim equal status for the priesthood alongside the imperial office, but anxious to subordinate the secular arm to patriarchal authority.

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