By Kimitaka Kaga M.D., Ph.D. (auth.)

Brain imaging and neurophysiological tools were speedily constructed. the aim of this publication is to explain listening to difficulties that are brought on by different types of mind illnesses in crucial auditory pathway. every one subject is defined to exploit loads of figures akin to mind imaging and neurophysiological facts evaluating with neuropsychological checks. Readers will comprehend what occurs in sufferers, while bilateral auditory nerve and auditory cortex are broken in sufferers. a few sufferers can pay attention yet can't discriminate meanings of speech, tune and environmental sounds. the writer attempts to give an explanation for why this sort of distinction occurs.

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In patient 1, left-ear TEOAEs were of low amplitude at 1, 2, and 6 kHz; DPOAEs were normal at 1–2 kHz, absent at 2–4 kHz, and of low amplitude at 4–6 kHz. In the right ear, TEOAEs were normal at 1–3 kHz, and DPOAEs were slightly reduced around 6 kHz. In patient 3, TEOAEs and DPOAEs were normal around 1–3 kHz bilaterally. No response was obtained from either ear at 3–8 kHz. The overall response amplitude was higher from the left ear. The results of our series of auditory and vestibular function tests suggest that in these patients lesions could exist at the auditory nerve but with slight involvement of the cochlear or vestibular organs and brainstem.

In case 6, the pure tone audiogram shows a near-normal threshold with no right–left difference. Judgment about the left ABR is reserved because the configuration is unclear; however, the right ABR shows marked prolongation of the wave V-I interval, which is >3 SD from the normal mean latencies. The nonsense monosyllable test showed a lower score on the right side Brainstem and Midbrain Lesions 51 The ABR of the right, affected side showed a markedly prolonged wave V-I peak interval (which was greater than the 3 SD from the mean in subjects with normal hearing).

Auditory nerves. Histologically, VIII nerves (a longitudinal section; c transverse section) are demyelinated, but facial nerves (b longitudinal section; d transverse section) are not damaged. (Luxol fast blue-cresyl violet stain.

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