By John A. Bryant, Linda Baggott la Velle, John F. Searle

Еще одна книга по проблеме этики в биологических и медицинских исследованиях. Одно из лучших руководств в своей области. Жаль, что на английском - книг такого же научного уровня по биоэтике в России нет.

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In practice the great majority of decisions about the non-human world are made in terms of instrumental value. That is not however to say that this is the most appropriate ethical scheme. ∑ Intrinsic value – the non-human world regarded as valuable in and of itself, whether it is used by or useful to human beings or not. Schemes based on intrinsic value might accord value to all non-human entities, including rocks, or only to living organisms. Again, living organisms might be regarded as fundamentally equal in value, or their value might be graded on a sliding scale, depending on their complexity, or their capacities, so that, for example, the capacity that higher animals have to feel pain might give them special status.

1994) Dangerous Diagnostics: the Social Power of Biological Information (2nd edn). Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL, USA. Rose, C. (1998) The Turning of the Spar. Greenpeace, London, USA. Warnock, M. (1985) A Question of Life: the Warnock Report on Human Fertilisation and Embryology. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. Wildavsky, A. (1995) But is it True? Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. Wilkie, T. (1993) Perilous Knowledge. Faber, London, UK. Ziman, J. (1968) Public Knowledge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

By contrast, the conviction that humans are merely one species among many, not special in any way, and that all species are of value, is called biocentrism. An important third category is theocentrism, the conviction that ² Michael Northcott in his valuable book The Environment and Christian Ethics (Northcott, 1996) uses the term ‘humanocentrism’ to mean the same thing. This is more correct in terms of derivation from the Latin, but ‘anthropocentrism’ remains the standard term. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS 41 entities are of value because God created them and remains in relationship to them.

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