By S. Rayegani

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Yusaku Nakabeppu, Hitoshi Kawano, Nobuaki Maeda and Shizuka Takaku for helpful suggestions, Hiroko Ueda and the late Kyoko Ajiki for technical assistance, and Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. for permission to reproduce the illustrations. 7. References Akahori, Y. & Horie, H. (1997). IGF-I enhances neurite regeneration but is not required for its survival in adult DRG explant. 9-10, (July 1997), pp. ; Horie, H. & Kohsaka, S. (2004). Distribution of the galectin-1 mRNA in the rat nervous system: its transient upregulation in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve axotomy.

Both needle EMG and NCS are used for localizing the lesion site. In pure axonal loss with secondary complete Wallerian degeneration, needle EMG of muscles that are located in distal and proximal to the site of presumed injury can localize the injury site. Knowledge of nerve branching and surface anatomy of peripheral nerve and muscular branching is crucial for the localization . Nerve conduction studies including distal latency, NCV and amplitude of the recorded responses by proximal and distal stimulation at the presumed site of involvement is more useful in detection of neurapraxia (conduction block) and demyelination types of involvement [8].

Selection of muscles for botulinum toxin denervation and tendons for chronic tendinipathies could be done more precisely under sono guide and also injection of these tissue with more confidence. [16] Doppler mode not only could determine main vasculature and avoid them during needling or injection it also could determine inflammation of nerves in inflammatory neuropathies or tendinopathies. [17] Real time scanning, reasonable price of instrument comparing to other imaging like CT or MRI and relatively short time of scan in a professional hand and also possibility of immediate scan after or during electromyography, make ultrasound a valuable choice in EDX lab for adding anatomic information to physiologic findings.

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