By E. L. Wolf

Graphene is gifted and analyzed as a substitute for silicon. the first concentration is on sunlight mobilephone and CMOS machine applied sciences, with recognition to the fabrication tools, together with extensions wanted, in every one case. really expert purposes for graphene in the latest silicon expertise are mentioned and located to be promising.

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The bonding in SiC is principally covalent, as in diamond C and in Si, but the elemental difference imparts some ionic character. The polar tetrahedrally-bonded layers of importance are arranged perpendicular to the c(0001) direction. There are two types of stacking of the SiC layers, cubic stacking and hexagonal stacking. The important hexagonal ‘‘polytypes’’ 4H and 6H, comprise, respectively, 4 and 6 such hexagonally stacked bilayers per unit cell. In 4H-SiC and in 6H-SiC the Silicon polar surface is designated ‘‘0001’’ while the polar Carbon surface is designated [000(-1)].

The ECG retains undefected hexagonal basal planes in platelets of size 100–500 nm, and can be reversed to pure graphite by direct annealing. In contrast (on the right) the basic chemical exfoliation route oxidizes the plane surfaces as well as the edges (a suggested structure for GO was shown in Fig. 1), and cannot be reversed to pure graphite by direct annealing. As mentioned earlier, when explosive exfoliation is applied to GO, reducing it to graphene, defects remain in the planes. According to Schniepp et al.

Koch et al. used STM to study the ‘‘voltagedependent conductance’’ as single ribbons are pulled free of the gold surface. While the authors do not describe the nanoribbons as metallic, they did observe currents up to 100 nA through these structures. The large current density suggests that the nanoribbons support metallic conduction in a 1D band above a band-edge energy. The ribbons were mechanically robust and were moved around the gold surface using the STM tip. 4 Chemical Vapor Deposition-Based Methods CVD 35 fabrication is only 400 °C.

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