By Marshall Cavendish

Historic Greece follows the growth of the Greeks from the early institution of farming groups round 6500 BCE, to the increase of the nice city-states of Sparta and Athens, and directly to the dissolution of the empire of Alexander the nice following his dying in 323 BCE.

Age diversity: eleven - 14 years
Grade point: 6 - nine

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Sample text

Because the results of law suits could now be recorded, leading to the establishment of legal codes, any citizen could appeal against an arbitrary ruling by a corrupt magistrate and cite legal precedent to uphold the appeal. This change led to more rational government and the rule of law. Greek expansion The period of Greek overseas settlement that began in the middle of the eighth century BCE lasted for more than 200 years. During that time, Greeks founded dozens of settlements on the fringes of the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black seas.

During the Persian Wars, Sparta assumed the military leadership almost automatically, and the heroic death of King Leonidas and his followers in the pass of Thermopylae in 480 BCE reinforced Sparta’s claim to this leadership. The philosopher Plato declared that Sparta came closest to his concept of the ideal state. Many historians, however, would argue that Sparta’s rival, Athens, would have a greater claim to the title. Athens The city-state of Athens consisted of the city of Athens and the region surrounding it—the Attic Peninsula (generally called Attica) on the east coast of mainland Greece.

Spartan males were trained from a young age to become soldiers and were banned from engaging in trade or crafts. For this reason, it was the perioikoi who formed the class of traders and craftsmen that exported iron ore, limestone for building, bronze figurines, and painted pottery. Lycurgus and the constitution After the final subjugation of the Messenians, a number of changes took place in Spartan society. These reforms have 55 ANCIENT GREECE Two Greek wrestlers prepare to fight in this relief sculpture.

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