By Aldred F. Barker

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23. In A a graphic illustration of a yarn with a twist-angle of 45° is given. B demonstrates that for a thread four times the thickness the same number of turns as in A will give a much greater exterior angle of twist, but the same interior angle and binding of the fibres. On the other hand, C and D show that if the same exterior fibre-angle is to be retained the interior angle will be very different, and that as a consequence the binding of the fibres in the centre of the thread will be very different.

J~l =3 4 8 of woollen. II8i hanks 5 14 12H From this the counts may be readily obtained, for II8l hanks = II8t X 256 -:-. 1516 dr. = about 20 yds. per dram, or 20 skeins. The cost per lb. will now readily be ascertained as follows : lb. oz. dr. d. I 7 141 at 3s. 8d. per lb. 6~ at 17s. per lb. } 4 25 = I 20 65H 4 = 234;)"2 255 I 0 30 = 98H 3 4 8 at 2S. 6d. per lb. = 84 - 6 x25 I 5 14 1zH costing 3981f (398i -:-. 1516) X 256 = 5s. 8d. per lb. for 3-fold yarn. To test the correctness of this answer reduce all to worsted counts, and proceed as follows : lb.

36 threads of warp are found to weigh r'2 grains and 36 picks of weft 3'7 grains. What are the counts of warp and weft respectively? Warp. As 1'2 grains: 7000 grains: : 3 yds, : 17'500 yds, per lb. 17'500 -7- 840 = 20'S count of cotton warp. Weft. As 3'7 grains: 7000 grains: : 3 yds. : 5676 yds. per lb. 5676 -:- 560 = 10'S count of mohair weft. -From the above examples it will be observed that the multiplying by 7000 grains and dividing by the number of yards per hank, according to the system of counting, is involved in each calculation.

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