By W. B. Lee

Classical plasticity is a good proven area of mechanics and engineering, supplying the root for plenty of engineering structural layout, production approaches and usual phenomena. New vital features are rising within the interdisciplinary method of micro-, meso- and macro-mechanics, and during research, experiments and computation.
The interplay of mechanics and fabrics scientists is introducing large adjustments within the disciplines, in order that the potential for fabrics being processed at the microscale to accomplish the specified macroscopic homes is speedily approaching.
A accomplished evaluation at the newest advancements in either macroplasticity and microplasticity theories, their interactions and functions in quite a few engineering disciplines corresponding to stable mechanics, structural research and geo-mechanics, fabrics technology and know-how, and steel forming and machining, is given during this quantity. Case experiences written by means of overseas specialists specialize in features similar to the purposes of plasticity in interdisciplinary and non-conventional parts. The a hundred and fifty papers supply a present and worthy reference resource at the newest advances for either learn employees and engineers within the numerous fields of plasticity.

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This is described briefly in the paper by Chen and Cohen [14]. 6. ELASTIC-PLASTIC-DAMAGE THEORY AS THE NEXT LOGICAL STEP Although a large number of constitutive models for concrete materials have been developed in recent years, realistic applicative models that are rational, reliable and practical and can be directly implemented into a general purpose finite element analysis code with relative ease, are still very limited. A rational concrete model should be able to describe adequately the main characteristics of the complete constitutive behavior of concrete materials, ranging from a ten­ sion and lower confining pressure state to a very high confining pressure state, as well as from the pre-failure regime to the post-failure regime.

In addition, it is seen that the response during reverse trans­ formation not only depends on p-^m loading path but also depends on elastic unload­ ing path, differing from those under proportional loadings. It must be pointed out that although the above theoretical analysis seems physically reasonable, it still remains to be verified by experiments. 2 Ferroelasticity and second kind of reorientation In addition to the case of pseudoelasticity by p - ^ m ^ p transformations at high tem­ peratures, SMA can exhibit inelastic deformation at low temperatures by first and sec­ ond kinds of reorientations.

Biswas and W. A. Knight, Proc. 15th Int. , 135 (1974). 8. N. Akgerman and T. Altan, SME Technical Paper, No. 72-110, April 1972. 9. G. B. A. Dean, Int. J. Mach. Tool Des. , 25* 1 (1985). 10. K. Lange and G. Du, Proceedings NAMRC, 17,1989. 11. S. Kobayashi, S. I. Oh and T. Altan, "Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method", Oxford University Press, 1989. 12. Beom-Soo Kang, J. Materials Processing Technology, 27,213 (1991). 13. Metals Handbook, Forming and Forging, American Society of Metals. Ninth Edition, H, 94.

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