By Nikos Tagmatarchis

This e-book covers the nomenclature and modeling of carbon nanomaterials, contains examples of surfaces and skinny movies of fullerenes, and examines the morphology and constitution of carbon nanotubes and the characterization of peapod fabrics by using transmission electron microscopy. It additionally offers electro-optical homes and self-assembly and enrichment in carbon nanotubes, by means of techniques for the chemical functionalization of carbon nanohorns and endohedral metallofullerenes. eventually, the functions of endohedral metallofullerenes in quantum computing and of functionalized carbon nanotubes in drugs finish this interesting evaluation of the field.

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21. (a) Atomistic model of a spherical carbon onion, C60 @C240 @C560 . 187 While metal-filled onions are of interest for their electromagnetic response,188 the primary interest in carbon onions is for tribiological applications. The onion’s spherical shape means they should serve as useful low-friction lubricants, while the multilayer structure makes them mechanically more robust than simple single-layer fullerenes. 192 Starting with a hemisphere, the hemisphere is completed to form a sphere, but the radius is uniformly increased during this completion.

The hypothetical “Nautilus-shell” structure, showing snapshots during proposed structural growth (from ref. 190). While the Nautilus structure has never been observed experimentally, molecular spiral carbon structures have been synthesized, and have been given the name spiroids194 (following the geometric term helicoid, a “warped surface generated by a moving straight line which always passes through or touches a fixed helix”195 ). An example of a spiroid is shown in Fig. 23. , under electron irradiation of carbon nanoparticles.

As an example, if nanohorns containing ferrocene were inserted into a phosphorus-doped SWCNT, which had porphyrine groups attached to its surface, this would be described as Porphyrine//((Fe(C5 H5 )2 )@CNH)@P-SWCNT. We described below the primary hybrid forms that have been predicted or observed. ) The term peapod applies to nanotubes filled with fullerene molecules. , C60@SWCNT. 7 nm were observed (see Fig. 25a). The size of the circles matched that of C60 molecules, and the distance between circles centers was consistent with the distance between C60 centers in fcc C60 .

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