By Wu Yi Hsiang

The coed of calculus is entitled to invite what calculus is and what it may be used for. This brief ebook offers a solution. the writer begins by means of demonstrating that calculus offers a mathematical instrument for the quantitative research of a variety of dynamical phenomena and platforms with variable amounts. The textual content then seems to be on the origins and intuitive assets of calculus, its primary technique, and its basic framework and easy constitution, ahead of interpreting a couple of usual functions. The author's sort is direct and pedagogical. the recent pupil may still locate that the publication offers a transparent and powerful grounding during this very important strategy.

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The number of statistical studies concerning euphony is very small (cf. Skinner 1939, 1941; Sebeok, Zeps 1959; Meyer-Eppler 1959; Altmann 1963, 1966a,b, 1968; Wimmer et al. 2003). The investigations are local, restricted to a text sort or a writer. Anyway, they show that objective quantification of different phonic phenomena in poetry is possible. e. by a significantly frequent occurrence of some phonemes in the line and set up an indicator of general euphony of a poem. Since we study only one writer, the starting point is the table of letters, their phonemic correspondences, and their occurrences in his works considered.

N. )(n − n. n. n. i i i i i 2 n (n − 1) i < i´ i i i' i' . The difference between the observed and the expected values divided by the root of the variance of S yields the standard normal distribution N(0,1). 96]). i ) 2 , =i 1 =i 1 which is approximately X2 ≈ u2. 1. 6839 showing that the diagonal is neutral although there is in fact a negative tendency (avoidance of sequences of equal vowels). 3635 and not significant: it does not show the direction of the tendency. 3. 4: Numbers of associations of subsequent vowels in 46 poems /a/ /ə/ /e/ /e̯ / /i/ /i / /j/ /o/ /a/ 0 23 /ə/ /ɨ/ 1 1 0 6 2 5 8 2 0 0 8 0 0 5 1 2 10 6 5 1 1 0 /e/ 1 0 4 /e̯ / 43 0 0 4 2 6 5 0 0 0 0 /i/ 0 4 1 7 7 2 0 /i / 1 0 14 2 0 2 /j/ 8 0 2 34 0 /ɨ/ /o̯ / /u/ /w/ 2 1 7 6 2 5 3 2 7 10 10 0 3 3 4 5 12 0 2 2 0 0 28 12 4 0 4 0 1 4 2 1 2 0 0 0 4 2 1 0 /o/ 0 1 1 1 3 19 9 9 4 3 7 7 /o̯ / 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /u/ 0 5 1 3 2 5 24 3 0 2 0 0 /w/ 8 3 4 2 1 1 0 0 4 1 1 0 Since (on the diagonal) there are only 12 cases (marked in bold face) out of 563, which indicate association of identical phonemes (/ɨ,ɨ/, /e,e/, /i,i/, /o,o/), we may state that there is a strong dissociative tendency to use sequences consisting of identical vowels.

3: Analysis of the poem Lebăda line no. 249277. 257629. In this way, the euphonic tendency of all poems can be computed. 4. The problem of the euphonic weight of individual phonemes is languagedependent – even if it can have an iconic background – but it cannot contribute to answering general questions. 453381. 442159 + 56 80 which is a highly significant value. Hence euphony played a certain role in Eminescu's work. We may ask two questions: (1) Did Eminescu develop in this respect or did he maintain the same level from the first to the last analysed poem?